Railways and machine tools, the forerunners have no tomorrow - the dilemma of basic equipment manufacturing

Abstract In 1987, Toshiba's Toshiba Machinery was accused of illegally selling precision multi-axis machine tools and related software that could be used to manufacture propellers to the Soviet military for the Soviet Army to manufacture low-noise submarines, which increased the use of US submarines. The difficulty of sonar. This transaction violated...
In 1987, Toshiba's Toshiba Machinery was accused of illegally selling precision multi-axis machine tools and related software that could be used to manufacture propellers to the Soviet military for the Soviets to manufacture low-noise submarines, which increased the use of US submarines. The difficulty of the Nassau enemy. The deal violated the Cold War CoCom agreement, although the transaction itself took place in the early 1980s, and the case was only heard in the late 1980s. The case was also valued above expectations, and the relationship between the United States and Japan Frustrated by things. At the end of the case, Toshiba’s two senior managers were sued for arrest, and Toshiba also suffered fines from the United States and Japan.

       Five-axis machine tool

The importance of machine tools to industry is like fertilizer for agriculture. There are water sources and temperatures in India. The grain output is almost half that of China, which has a higher latitude than mountains and water. In addition to food demand and population quality, the backward fertilizer industry is hard to blame. However, such things as chemical fertilizers, although the scientific and technological content is not low, the international advanced level is not high enough after all; increasing production is still a thing that can be done at the thought, nothing more than a quantitative process.

But the machine is different. Three feet of ice, not a cold day, industry and technology can not achieve simultaneous prosperity. The progress of the manufacturing industry is not the result of scientists in the laboratory, which requires a lot of industrial workers and factory owners to try and improve and improve over the years. For example, the laboratory can produce advanced electrical components, but it is not able to stabilize the voltage of the final product – more complex components, 100 times in the laboratory, there will be 100 different voltages, and this is obviously industrialized and standardized. distant. Standard industrial production requires industrial workers on the assembly line to find ways to achieve it, and often it is not a problem that can be solved by making a head.

The three-axis machine tool is a traditional machine tool type. The material is placed on the machine tool. The tool is placed on the top of the material. Under the control of the program, the material moves linearly in the left, right, up and down, front and back directions. The artifacts. However, the three-axis machine tool has serious limitations, because the material can not be moved in the three dimensions of left and right, up and down, and front and back, but only three straight lines can be moved in the starting position, so the complex bevel, The processing of curved surfaces and various types of twists and turns, tens of shallow and deep, can only be achieved by adjusting the position and angle of the material placement, multiple times of clamping, and multiple starts. This requires not only repeated operations, but also time and labor (and the cost of fixtures used to adjust the angle). It also requires manual participation (sometimes even after the lower machine is used). It is difficult to achieve standard accuracy and is not available for industrial production. . In the early 1990s, during the period of China's best friends, American experts went to China to guide the manufacture of fighters. They were surprised to find: "Ah! Every engine in your country is different!" The standard and precision of industrial production started for China's modern industry. The late generations who are so late, it’s all tears.

In the last century, major industrial countries abandoned the traditional three-axis machine tools in high-precision workpiece production and switched to five-axis linkage machines. The five-axis linkage machine adds two angular velocities to the three line speeds, which ensures the free movement of the material on the machine, making the construction of complex surfaces possible. Moreover, the five-axis linkage makes any one under one clamping Surface machining is achieved, ensuring high efficiency and high precision. Some airtight requirements (such as artificial cardiovascular), high pressure requirements (such as pump cylinders), noise prevention requirements (such as submarine propellers) and other workpieces with high precision requirements, or their own shapes (such as ship impellers, generators) The workpiece of the rotor is basically completely dependent on the machining of a five-axis linkage machine. In the aviation, aerospace, military, scientific research, precision instruments, high-precision medical equipment and other industries, five-axis linkage machine tools play an irreplaceable role.
How is the use of such tall equipment in China?

        Industrial gap

Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls, abbreviated as CoCom, referred to as Batumi, officially known as the Export Control Coordinating Committee, was the Cold War period after the end of World War II, and an embargo and trade established by Western developed countries against socialist countries. An informal international organization that has no treaty and is not open to the public. The Paris Coordinating Committee officially announced its dissolution on March 31, 1994, and its list of embargoed items was later inherited by the Wassenaar Agreement and continues to this day. The trade materials controlled by the Wassenaar Agreement are mainly weapons and military-used goods. The current signatories include more than 40 developed industrial countries including Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Russia and Russia. The restricted trade targets are North Korea, Iraq, and China.

Of course, those who are familiar with international politics understand that there is no eternal principle, only eternal interests. Who does not know that China’s economic growth is scary? So multi-axis CNC machine tools are still... um... often exported to China - if this is the case, China's manufacturing industry is happy to fly. Multi-axis CNC machine tools exported to China often accept one or more of the following treatments: 1 The preset program cannot be modified and can only be used to produce qualified workpieces with limited specifications; 2 is fixed at some place and keeps the positioning system connected. Once the network is disconnected or the location changes, it will be subject to surprise inspection and prosecution; 3 function or performance is limited, becoming a semi-disability that is castrated. In addition, foreign exporters also hold the right to go to the factory for inspection from time to time, once they find out that the machine tool is used for the purpose other than the purchase agreement...

In the eyes of smart businessmen, this is certainly not a problem - you can buy a device, you can buy a process. Is it necessary to outsource the workpieces that can be produced by multi-axis CNC machine tools? Oh, you said that foreign labor costs are high, and importing these parts is expensive? Then I used a three-axis machine tool in my hand to make a rough mold, and then shipped it to Japan with five-axis machining. OK. Take a chestnut, a diesel engine component, and export the steel to the Chinese factory. The three-axis cuts the embryo and sells it to Japan for 20 yuan. Japan uses a multi-axis CNC machine tool that you can't afford. , sold back, a 150 piece. Is there a feeling of being blasted?
Or do you feel that the technology is not enough and the manpower is going to make up? Complex surfaces can't be processed at one time, then it's feasible to disassemble them into simple surfaces and then process them separately. You think so much, many of the pieces that can't be made with a three-axis are so made. Take the bicycle helmet as an example. The streamlined hole has a cavity design. If the three axes are out of the way, don’t think about it, then it will be made into four pieces, and four three-axis vertical machining centers will be used together, then artificially polished and artificial. Bonding, we don't mention this precision for the time being - not a bicycle helmet, but after completing this set of processes, 8 people need to work 7 to 10 days. You can see this manpower cost and production efficiency... and switch to five-axis linkage. The machining center, the overall processing is no longer a problem, it does not say how much precision is improved, this work only needs two people to operate, it takes a day and a half to complete. The number of workers in China is more than ten times that of Japan. Until 2009, industrial output exceeded Japan, and there is no reason.

If you still feel that these are too far away from your life, and begin to think about the existence of alternatives to certain artifacts, or how important some complex machinery itself is... How much is a domestic denture? Hundreds to thousands. The material is simple, there is no so-called design problem. If you change a few teeth, you will spend thousands of dollars. If you spend a lot of money in your life, don’t you think this price is a bit strange? Consider the fact that dentures are not designed but have very complex surface shapes – yes, dentures are also made with high-end machines. Tears flowed.

Then the next question is why there is no five-axis linkage technology in China.

        digital control

There have also been Chinese manufacturers of pseudo-four-axis linkage machines, one angular speed is there, but can not move with the three line speeds at the same time. This design only saves a part of the trouble of multiple clamping, and still can't plan complex curved surfaces with perfect motion track. Similar micro-innovations are easier, but unfortunately the meaning is very small.

From the perspective of hardware and software, the machine tool is divided into two parts, the numerical control system and the bed body, and the bed body part includes the cutter head and the turntable. From the three axes to the five axes, the bed itself naturally changes, and the software part is many times more complicated. Imagine a three-axis machine tool, pushing and pulling, all the scraping, the experienced worker's master takes you on the road in minutes, and with the four-axis five-axis rotation jump, I close my eyes... It seems that I can't do it.

The weakness of Chinese machine tools is not in the bed, but in NC (Numerical Control, numerical control, referred to as CNC). It is straightforward, which is the program used to process various workpieces. The main part of the program is the five-axis motion. The trajectory consists of a large number of coordinate systems. It is impossible to write on a human brain, and the efficiency is too low. Therefore, it is important to automatically generate a large number of coordinates according to the model structure, which requires a machine capable of measuring five coordinates. And a set of algorithms. Of course, with measurement and calculation is not enough, there are so many processing methods, and not all-purpose ball-end milling cutters: metal cutting machine tools, light milling machines, laser cutting machines, EDM machines, polishing processing Machines, laser intensifiers, they all have the potential of five-axis linkage, all need the corresponding program command to move.

Seeing here, everyone, farmers, products, Internet people, do you think this article is wrong website?

In the field of CNC machine tools, domestic products account for less than 1% of the world market share, even in their own countries. China's annual production of machine tools, the CNC rate is less than half, and there is a big gap with more than 70% of the developed countries - this is only an increase, if considering a large number of factories are still using traditional equipment, CNC of China's stock machine tools I am afraid that the rate will not exceed 20%. Among them, high-end CNC machine tools are basically completely dependent on imports, and imports from Japan account for one-third of the total – of course, in the high-end CNC system, a small number of companies in Japan and Germany are monopolized internationally, the first in this field. Echelon, even the Americans did not squeeze in.

In the case of the United States, there are people who want money, have money, and have a market in the market. If this thing is not done well, it can only be understood as not wanting to do it.

Compared with the Internet industry, which can sell applications or advertise on websites, the manufacturing industry has too many links from start-up to profitability. With the manufacturing of CNC machine tools, the process flow is roughly as follows:

CAID (Computer Aided Industrial Design): including morphological design, color design, decorative design, human-machine design, green design and design evaluation.

CAD (Computer Aided Design): including digital two-dimensional modeling design, three-dimensional virtual assembly verification, virtual digital mechanical structure analysis.

CAPP (Computer Aided Process Planning): including process selection, equipment selection, tool selection, processing step design, flexible manufacturing process design, etc.

CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing): including machining path trajectory planning, NC machining program generation, etc.

CNC (CNC machining): including the use of various CNC machine tools to complete workpiece processing, flexible production line management, workpiece transport, process status monitoring, collaborative processing information transfer.

Testing: including inspection after completion of each process, final inspection, and information feedback of inspection results at all levels.

To make a minimum supply, these six steps can't be done independently, what is "available"? After all these are done, where is the "small"?

The equipment manufacturing industry invested too much in the early stage, the startup was too heavy, and the income was too slow. A start-up company did not accumulate for several years and did not burn tens of millions of yuan. It is unlikely that some achievements in this field will be achieved, let alone How to occupy the market before the final product comes out. This is not economical. There is no Internet and financial beauty at all. It is not a lean startup at all.

However, industry is an important lifeline for a country, especially for big countries. The basis of industry is equipment manufacturing. This line does not develop. How can industry go further?

Nobody loves to build roads and railways. The cash demand is huge, the engineering cycle is scary, and the profit is good. Well, use the word "business model" - only hehe. However, everyone knows that poor and backward land tends to have unfavorable traffic, and where the roads and railways are laid, where the economy is better. Paving is an act that is extremely difficult for infrastructure companies and extremely beneficial to the entire economic environment.

For companies, such projects, investors do not like it. You told me that the technical content is extremely high, the market is extremely large, and there are also the feelings of the benefit of the country and the people. Then you tell me that it may be profitable after 5 years - I can't listen directly.

In fact, I know that a domestic company started researching five-axis linkage machine tools in 2004. The first prototype was only released in 2008, and then until this year – 10 years, everyone – not yet entering the rhythm of opening the market.

But I appreciate them very much, just as I also appreciate Shihe Xinji, just as I appreciate Liu Zhijun.

       Pioneer pain

The Tokyo-Osaka Shinkansen is a project promoted by Tenhe Shinji. Because the budget is too high, it is obviously impossible to pass the congressional review. The budget of Shihexin 2 is not even half of the total project payment. Later, Shihe Xin Erlian deceived and used various legal and illegal means to raise funds. It was also difficult to support the huge engineering expenses and left the company after the insider exposure. In the second half of the project, the Japanese government allocated a large amount of finance to complete the construction of the Shinkansen due to the consideration of the Japanese credit image.

On October 1, 1964, on the eve of the opening of the Tokyo Olympics, the Shinkansen was opened to traffic. The former Japanese state-owned railway president, Shihe Xinji, who had already stepped down a year ago, was not invited to attend, so he had to watch TV at home. After many years, the Shinkansen has become a symbol of the Japanese nation like Mount Fuji, and Shihe Shinji is also known as the "father of the Shinkansen". His relics are quietly displayed in the Shihe Shinji Memorial Hall in Saijo City, Ehime Prefecture. .

As for Liu Zhijun, because of the well-known problems, I will not comment too much here. However, China's high-speed rail achievements have become increasingly apparent. The high-speed rail has begun to export to Turkey, India and even the United Kingdom. The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail has also been profitable. Today, even if Liu Zhijun knows all this, what can he do?

Many of the investment companies that have made me find that the investment market obviously prefers to start projects with quick start-ups, and many investors and investment institutions say that "emphasizing market potential" and "don't care about short-term financial indicators" often cannot withstand 5 years. The 10-year net input has no output test. Can such a market be called "floating"? I don't think so. It is also the expectation that the benefit of avoiding harm and value time value is the nature of capital. It is also expected that restarting long-term projects will not be favored by capital.

Fortunately, there have always been pioneers who have not given up. Some high-end CNC machine tool R&D companies in China have also won various science and technology or innovation awards and are listed in the National Torch Program. If investors can see the huge potential market of the basic equipment manufacturing industry through this article, or understand the difficult situation of the industry, it is also lucky in all senses.

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