Potato fertilization technology

The potato is a high-yield potassium-producing crop. The ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the growth period is N:P2O5:K20=1:0.5:2, that is, the requirement of potassium for potato is twice that of nitrogen. In the province, the fertilization in potato cultivation is extremely unreasonable. According to the survey, the average potato yield is 881 kg/mu, the average application of pure nitrogen is 9.8 kg/mu, pure phosphorus is 6.4 kg/mu, pure potassium is 1.1 kg/mu, equivalent to urea 21.3. kg. / acre, calcium 40 kg / mu, potassium sulfate 2.2 kg / mu, N: P2O5: K20 is 1:0.65: 0.11, it can be seen that potato production of potassium fertilizer is seriously insufficient. In addition to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, trace elements such as calcium, boron, copper and magnesium are also necessary for potato growth and development, especially for calcium, which is equivalent to 1/4 of potassium.
The variety and amount of nutrients required for each stage of the potato are different.
From germination to seedling stage, because the tubers are rich in nutrients, they absorb less nutrients, accounting for about 25% of the total growth period.
During the tuber formation period to the tuber expansion period, due to the large growth of stems and leaves and the rapid formation and expansion of tubers, the absorption of nutrients is the most, accounting for more than 50% of the total growth period.
The absorption of nutrients during the accumulation of starch decreased, accounting for about 25% of the total growth period. The absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in each growth period is more nitrogen in the seedling stage, more potassium in the middle stage, and less phosphorus in the whole growth period.
Combined with the growth characteristics and fertilizer characteristics of potato shoots and shoots, potato fertilization techniques should follow the principle of applying farmyard manure, supplemented by chemical fertilizers, based on base fertilizer and appropriate topdressing.
1. Re-application of base fertilizer: The amount of base fertilizer generally accounts for more than 2/3 of the total fertilization amount, and the base fertilizer is mainly based on decomposed farmyard manure, and a certain amount of quantitative fertilizer is added. The specific fertilization amount is: in the plot of about 1500 kg per mu, the application of organic fertilizer 1500 ~ 2500 kg, urea 20 kg, calcium 20 ~ 30 kg, potassium fertilizer 10 ~ 12 kg, the fertilizer applied to the potato 2 ~ At 3 cm, avoid direct contact with seed potatoes, cover soil after fertilization, and mix fertilizer with organic fertilizer to improve fertilizer utilization.
2. Early topdressing: After the seedling stage (after the seedlings), the nitrogen fertilizer is applied, and the cultivating soil is combined with 5 to 8 kg of urea for watering. After the flowering of the potato, the rhizosphere topdressing is generally not carried out. In particular, the nitrogen fertilizer cannot be applied in the rhizosphere. Otherwise, the improper fertilization will cause the stems and leaves to grow, hinder the formation of tubers, delay the development, and easily produce small potatoes and deformed potatoes, and the dry matter content is reduced. Susceptible to late blight and scab. After the flowering of the potato, the phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are mainly applied by foliar spraying, and the spraying of 0.3% to 9.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution 50 kg/mu every 8 to 15 days is carried out continuously for 2 to 3 times. Nitrogen can increase the spray of 100-150 grams of urea. Through root dressing, the yield of tubers can be significantly improved, and the quality and storability of tubers can be improved.
In the place where conditions permit, actively promote soil testing and formula fertilization, through sampling and soil sample analysis, aiming to propose a reasonable ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and at the same time apply appropriate amount of medium and trace elements to produce or formulate special formula for potato. Fertilizer, used directly in potato production, to promote potato yield and income. It must be noted that the potato is a chlorine-free crop, and it is not possible to apply chlorine-containing fertilizers such as potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, compound fertilizers containing chloride ions, and compound fertilizers.
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